(NOTE: This manual does not describe the Objective-C and Objective-C++ languages themselves. See Language Standards Supported by GCC, for references.)
This section describes the command-line options that are only meaningful
for Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs, but you can also use most of
the language-independent GNU compiler options.
For example, you might compile a file
some_class.m like this:
gcc -g -fgnu-runtime -O -c some_class.m
In this example, -fgnu-runtime is an option meant only for Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs; you can use the other options with any language supported by GCC.
Note that since Objective-C is an extension of the C language, Objective-C compilations may also use options specific to the C front-end (e.g., -Wtraditional). Similarly, Objective-C++ compilations may use C++-specific options (e.g., -Wabi).
Here is a list of options that are only for compiling Objective-C and Objective-C++ programs:
@"...". The default class name is
NXConstantStringif the GNU runtime is being used, and
NSConstantStringif the NeXT runtime is being used (see below). The -fconstant-cfstrings option, if also present, will override the -fconstant-string-class setting and cause
@"..."literals to be laid out as constant CoreFoundation strings.
__NEXT_RUNTIME__is predefined if (and only if) this option is used.
[receiver message:arg]) in this translation unit ensure that the receiver is not
nil. This allows for more efficient entry points in the runtime to be used. This option is only available in conjunction with the NeXT runtime and ABI version 0 or 1.
- (id) .cxx_constructinstance method which will run non-trivial default constructors on any such instance variables, in order, and then return
self. Similarly, check if any instance variable is a C++ object with a non-trivial destructor, and if so, synthesize a special
- (void) .cxx_destructmethod which will run all such default destructors, in reverse order.
- (id) .cxx_construct and
- (void) .cxx_destruct
methods thusly generated will only operate on instance variables
declared in the current Objective-C class, and not those inherited
from superclasses. It is the responsibility of the Objective-C
runtime to invoke all such methods in an object's inheritance
- (id) .cxx_construct methods will be invoked
by the runtime immediately after a new object instance is allocated;
- (void) .cxx_destruct methods will be invoked immediately
before the runtime deallocates an object instance.
As of this writing, only the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.4 and later has
support for invoking the
- (id) .cxx_construct and
- (void) .cxx_destruct methods.
@synchronized. This option is available with both the GNU runtime and the NeXT runtime (but not available in conjunction with the NeXT runtime on Mac OS X 10.2 and earlier).
objc_getClass("...")(when the name of the class is known at compile time) with static class references that get initialized at load time, which improves run-time performance. Specifying the -fzero-link flag suppresses this behavior and causes calls to
objc_getClass("...")to be retained. This is useful in Zero-Link debugging mode, since it allows for individual class implementations to be modified during program execution. The GNU runtime currently always retains calls to
objc_get_class("...")regardless of command-line options.
-Wassign-intercept(Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
-Wno-protocol(Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
-Wselector(Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
@selector(...)expression, and a corresponding method for that selector has been found during compilation. Because these checks scan the method table only at the end of compilation, these warnings are not produced if the final stage of compilation is not reached, for example because an error is found during compilation, or because the -fsyntax-only option is being used.
-Wstrict-selector-match(Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
Class. When this flag is off (which is the default behavior), the compiler will omit such warnings if any differences found are confined to types that share the same size and alignment.
-Wundeclared-selector(Objective-C and Objective-C++ only)
@selector(...)expression referring to an undeclared selector is found. A selector is considered undeclared if no method with that name has been declared before the
@selector(...)expression, either explicitly in an
@protocoldeclaration, or implicitly in an
@implementationsection. This option always performs its checks as soon as a
@selector(...)expression is found, while -Wselector only performs its checks in the final stage of compilation. This also enforces the coding style convention that methods and selectors must be declared before being used.